April 14, 2024


The Joy of Technology

Contemporary Issues Relating to the Use of Technology in Maritime Matters


The technological developments shaping our environment these days are the similar types impacting all of modern society and business such as the maritime sector – from an on-need digital overall economy that has massively transformed e-commerce to Artificial Intelligence (AI) which is upturning details-intense sectors like the judiciary and blockchain engineering which among other factors is massively impacting global provide chains, a person factor is crystal clear: modern society is on the lookout to justice and authorized solutions sector that does not only comprehend how technology functions, or that appreciates the use of technologies to provide efficiencies but one particular that also acknowledges the new lawful concerns emanating from a technological know-how-driven planet and is in a position to engage appropriately.

A changing maritime industry, engineering as a pressure

The technological forces that are essentially shifting our entire world are run by Industry 4. systems. These rising systems are Synthetic Intelligence (AI), blockchain, cloud computing, significant information analytics, and the Net of Items (IoT). Every of these technologies has impacted the maritime sector in assorted approaches across its complete worth chain.

Shipping is a enormous world wide organization. World-wide paying on logistics achieved $9 trillion in 2020, about 11% of the world’s gross domestic item (GDP). 3rd-occasion logistics, of which freight forwarding is a big component, amounts to almost $1trillion. The Covid-19 pandemic coupled with geopolitical tensions and a range of other factors experienced positioned world-wide supply chains on around-lifestyle assistance. Conversely, the exponential rise of e-commerce has similarly trigged phenomenal development in the logistics marketplace as a total and the maritime sector, in certain. World provide chains rely heavily on the shipping field to fulfill the calls for of an accelerating digital financial state across the entire world. A bevvy of know-how startups and incumbent corporations have risen to confront these developments with resourceful answers to the difficulty.

Flexport, a engineering start off-up that supplies an conclusion-to-conclusion system to streamline communication amongst the many parties involved in the shipping and delivery system, and also lets cargo owners to monitor their shipments in serious-time is an example of the disrupting pressure of engineering in the Shipping and delivery entire world. Flexport relies heavily on AI-primarily based engineering, huge knowledge analytics, IoTs, and other industry 4. systems to deliver a support that is proving to be a existence-saver in the maritime sector. Flexport is just a person of several.

For a world-wide digital society that has arrive to anticipate these types of efficiencies in service shipping and delivery in the maritime sector, it is minor question that there is a related expectation for a more quickly, extra agile, and nimble justice and legal solutions sector to manage maritime matters. In a switching entire world, the requires of modern society are also shifting. Consequently, the digitization of modern society and sector has greatly impacted the terrains of dispute resolution and other lawful and justice sector providers.

There is even so a “pacing gap”, in which technological developments rapidly outpace our society’s means to catch up, such as legal products and services and the judiciary. Nonetheless, a thoughtful electronic transformation procedure in the sector will shut the pacing gap. Down below are some considerations that will aid an expedited digital transformation of the authorized providers and justice sector to correctly handle maritime atters

Educated policymaking and developmental regulation in dispute resolution

A elaborate array of domestic and worldwide legal guidelines, treaties, and business codes govern the world’s delivery industry across numerous jurisdictions. This essentially impacts the management of maritime issues by the Justice system. In Nigeria, the Admiralty Jurisdiction Act vests the Federal Large Court docket with jurisdiction in respect of admiralty issues. Having said that, specified the exigencies of maritime issues, there is a groundswell of Option Dispute Resolution interventions in the sector, specially Arbitration. Irrespective of the approaches deployed in handling Maritime Matters, the underlying infrastructure necessary to support the use of technological innovation is important.

The Dispute Resolution ecosystem in Nigeria involves more suited procedures and protocols for a electronic economic system. Particularly in industries that are starting to be far more reliant on electronic systems, this sort of as the maritime sector. These will deliver the wanted aid for the electronic transformation by now transpiring in the sector. An example would be the will need for precise Guidelines of Courtroom guiding Electronic Evidence or Electronic Proof in Arbitration such as the IBA Policies on the Taking of Proof in International Arbitration and the United kingdom Digital Dispute Resolution Regulations. Underpinning these new policies would be coverage that evidently articulates expectations and greatest methods that will for instance harmony the will need for technologies utilization with strong cybersecurity and privacy practices.

The Nigerian Judiciary Data Engineering Plan Doc (2012) (“the Policy”) outlined a compelling vision: To guarantee a Justice Process that is easy, quick, effective, and efficient —- by absolutely integrating technological know-how into the justice administration technique. The goal of the coverage document was to provide as a guideline for all organs of the judiciary by providing requirements for the overall ecosystem of courtroom systems, from Scenario Management Methods to E-Submitting and Electronic Document Management Units, to digital libraries and to video conferencing and electronic court docket devices. Ten several years following the plan was birthed, the technology landscape has progressed. The planet had moved into another era of computing regarded as Website 3.. This shift in computing indicates that the Plan is rapidly turning into out of date and this poses a significant challenge to our recent ways of working with know-how for lawful expert services and justice shipping.

A revision of the Plan will involve leadership that is aware of the opportunities that field 4. technologies open up up. It will have to have crafting a eyesight that encompasses the right engineering, the correct persons, and the right procedures and 1 that will be incremental in its electronic transformation benefit-additions.

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As now observed above, transport is a large business and it underpins the earth of e-commerce. An instance is Amazon, an e-commerce large and the world’s greatest retailer that relies closely on the maritime industry for its functions. Presented the scale of these operations, our standard methods of handling maritime affairs are previously overwhelmed by the magnitude of disputes involving businesses, SMEs, and buyers. ebay an e-commerce system and Paypal a payment system, for occasion, have utilized ODR mechanisms to solve hundreds of thousands of disputes exterior official dispute resolution devices. For this reason the rising require for more substitute platforms, intercontinental arbitrations, specialised proceedings, and the deployment of substantial-tech options to generate more rapidly and more cost-effective methods. Moreover, an Business 4. globe blended with World wide web3. realities forces us to think about the changing dynamics of court docket, arbitral proceedings, and other ADR mechanisms. Shai Sharvit, designed this apparent in a paper delivered at the Nigerian Institute of Chartered Arbitrators Meeting, 2021 as follows:

“Typically, we tend to assume of dispute resolution usually and about arbitration and intercontinental arbitration in a extremely dogmatic way: (1) two or much more get-togethers, which we know who they are and (2) who have a dispute over a pretty specific and described property (true or digital) and (3) they would like to solve this dispute outside the house of the classic courtroom units and (4) they contractually agree to refer this dispute to a 3rd individual, who will identify the entitlements of the parties. This is a incredibly normal description of the system.

In addition to these general characteristics, we typically increase that the entitlement of legal rights concerning the get-togethers is determined by an arbitral tribunal under the “supervision” or rule of regulation of a described jurisdiction which also dictates the primary guidelines of these proceedings, and at the time there is a determination on the entitlement, the functions can nonetheless argue in opposition to the procedural elements of the dispute resolution (in placing apart proceedings) or the deserves of the determination (in charm proceedings).

These concepts and our notion of the arbitration process and of the essence or mother nature of arbitration look to no for a longer time fit today’s New Digital Entire world economy – new features and specifications this kind of as nameless parties, investing platforms with no any authorized entity proudly owning or working them, no distinct or single jurisdiction or established of regulations governing or overseeing their operations, good contracts that operate instantly, eradicating any need to have for enforcement proceedings are just a several illustrations of how this New Digital Entire world economic climate has altered from the traditional overall economy …”

The implication is that the use of technological know-how to tackle these kinds of elaborate Internet 3. issues in a maritime or yet another context will transcend the invest in and deployment of common IT equipment in courtrooms or at arbitral sittings, it will have to have an appreciation of deep systems this sort of as blockchain technological innovation and Smart Contracts together with other contemporary strategies these types of as ODR. Dispute resolution mechanisms will hence make provision for these kinds of rising realities as anonymous functions in proceedings and DAO involvement in transactions.

Technological know-how assistance infrastructure

The use of technological know-how to produce efficiencies in the justice sector, which includes Maritime matters is a incredibly familiar concept. But most attempts in this regard have often failed to deliver the promised value to stakeholders. At the coronary heart of leveraging technology successfully is an knowing of the dispute resolution or legal expert services benefit chain. In enterprise a digital transformation journey, it is useful to map out the value chain or useful spots.

Generally, any dispute resolution or legal solutions price chain will require resourcing and communication technologies as portion of the provider infrastructure. These include Scenario Administration Computer software and stakeholders conversation software package ranging from Document/Information Administration Application to Virtual Conferencing resources. In addition to resourcing and conversation systems are Assistance Delivery and Engagement instruments. These would include anything from Automatic Document Assembly program, E-understanding Software, E-libraries for analysis, On the internet Dispute Resolution resources, Intelligent Authorized Research and Doc Evaluation instruments etcetera. The modern-day iteration of these applications are Huge Info-pushed and AI-Primarily based. Illustrations of cloud-based Virtual hearing alternatives are Zoom, Webex, Microsoft Teams, and Google Meet up with.

Case Administration Methods: Case Administration and Court docket Management Units are program utilised to take care of knowledge, paperwork, engagements, and all other authorized providers or justice administration procedures. These are both on-premise or cloud-based remedies that present for this sort of providers as e-filing of scenarios, optimization of scenario data, verbatim reporting of courtroom proceedings, and automation of administrative procedures. The Nigeria Scenario Management Technique developed by the Nationwide Judicial Council is an case in point of this sort of a detailed process. Court docket Management Programs has also been deployed by Rivers and Oyo Point out Judiciary amid other states.

Excellent Courtroom Management systems are cloud-based and choose cognisance of the whole benefit chain of judicial services. These incorporate e-Courts, e-Probate, e-affidavits, e-ADR Courthouse, e-Tiny statements Courtroom, e-household Courts, e-libraries, e-interaction, e-collaboration resources, and AI-dependent analytics systems to point out a several. Likewise, situation administration programs are tailor-created for authorized products and services practitioners with bespoke features like Deal Administration instruments and E-mediation or E-Arbitration software package.

Virtual conferencing is a required element of e-Courtroom techniques specifically in a hybrid context – to bring a seamless experience among the physical and the virtual. Deploying the suitable know-how to attain this goal is essential.

Strong Infrastructure: Underpinning the technological know-how provider infrastructure is reliable infrastructure. Stable infrastructure is the backbone of any engineering solution. These are on-ground technological know-how infrastructures with hybrid-completely ready functionalities. It consists of sturdy accessibility and connectivity which assumes the availability of world-wide-web broadband and dependable interaction technologies. Stable Technological know-how infrastructure is important to the legitimacy and integrity of the Dispute Resolution and legal services ecosystem.

Comfortable Infrastructure: In addition to sound and company infrastructure is gentle technology infrastructure. Without tender engineering infrastructure this sort of as electronic identities, the hard work to deploy and use systems will be severely challenged. Buyers of know-how providers will have to possess credentials that make it attainable to confirm and authenticate their identity in digital or other options. This is especially important to preserving privacy, stability, and safety in the e-arena

Electronic Literacy and Expertise

This is primarily a recognition that investing in the correct hardware and computer software with out a deliberate and intentional exertion in establishing human capacity achieves incredibly minimal effects. A dispute resolution and legal products and services ecosystem that will harness the opportunities produced offered by the array of emerging systems is just one that not only has deep authorized expertise in subject issue parts this kind of as in the Maritime area but one particular that understands how technological know-how will work. This transcends the recognition of engineering only as an effectiveness or efficiency software relatively it includes an knowledge of the interplay of regulation, modern society, and technological innovation in effective justice administration and legal services shipping and delivery

It involves schooling that should to be championed by our institutions of learning but will also demand investments in corporate and self-advancement. The setting up point calls for a frame of mind change, an embrace of a tradition of innovation. Without the need of a culture that encourages technological innovation, even the finest thought-out electronic transformation technique will fail. The legal companies and justice sector appears to be technologically resistant in quite a few methods, and quite a few moments owing to an irrational dismissal of technological innovation. This should to change and only then can a re-education and learning course of action obtain momentum. There are many on the web programs that are beneficial in working to company or self-re-education and learning. These consist of Harvard University’s Comprehending Engineering Program and Open University’s Introduction to Cybersecurity. Self-studying packages ought to be applied throughout an organization’s hierarchy for long lasting success


The inadequacy of knowledgeable policymaking and developmental regulation, technological know-how infrastructure, and engineering-savvy management and workforce are the good reasons for the large failure fee of digital transformation initiatives in the legal solutions and justice sector. This in transform breeds cynicism and further more deepens the rejection of engineering. Interoperability also poses a obstacle where by Courtroom Administration Programs deployed independently by Federal and Condition Judiciary organs fail to combine seamlessly usually as a end result of a absence of standardization. The units do not talk with a person another and are therefore fewer optimized. These shortcomings can be solved by re-viewing the vision of the Coverage at the highest concentrations to assure coordination of attempts


The sturdy tides that have shaped engineering from the to start with to the third industrial revolution proceed to broaden into the fourth industrial revolution. This report has examined our modifying earth and the shifting maritime marketplace with know-how as a pressure. The use of technological know-how in maritime matters transcends the classic deployment of technological know-how in such locations as digital hearings, Courtroom Administration or Scenario administration, it encompasses the embrace of emerging technologies and the new authorized issues emanating from a technological know-how-accelerated planet.

The maritime entire world is broad. It incorporates a network of suppliers, transporters, warehouses, distribution centres, shipping and delivery strains, logistics expert services companies, and far more. All of these useful regions depend greatly on technology. The use of technology in managing matters in any and all of these parts will for that reason need artistic and revolutionary approaches throughout the legal services and administration of justice sector.

Rotimi Ogunyemi is the Managing Partner, Bayo Ogunyemi & Co. He is also the Co-Chair Digital, Nigerian Bar Asociation, and Chair, ICT Committee NBA-Part on Enterprise Regulation.


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